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Although reducers are usually concentric, eccentric reducers are used as needed to maintain the top- or bottom-of-pipe level. Gaskets are mechanical seals, usually ring-shaped, which seal flange joints. Commonly used gaskets are non-metallic (ASME B 16.21), spiral-wound (ASME B 16.20) and ring-joint (ASME B 16.20). Non-metallic gaskets are used with flat- or raised-face flanges. Spiral-wound gaskets are used with raised-face flanges, and ring-joint gaskets are used with ring-type joint flanges. Stress develops between an RTJ gasket and the flange groove when the gasket is bolted to a flange, leading to plastic deformation of the gasket.

Fittings require money, time, materials, and tools to install, and are an important part of piping and plumbing systems. Valves are technically fittings, but are usually discussed separately. Choosing the material of your pipe fitting comes down to what will be running through the pipe. From fittings perfect for cold water supplies to reliable options for gases and chemicals wastes, we carry a variety of fitting options to help you get the job done.

A tee, the most common pipe fitting, is used to combine or divide fluid flow.Tees can connect pipes of different diameters or change the direction of a pipe run, or both. Available in a variety of materials, sizes and finishes, they may also be used to transport two-fluid mixtures. Tees may be equal or unequal in size of their three connections, with equal tees the most common. In short radius elbow, centreline radius is the same as the nominal size of the pipe or you can say one times the diameter of the pipe.

Hydraulic fittings are designed and constructed to resist high-pressure leakage and sudden failure. The diverter tee is designed to allow flow to continue in the main line, even when the side branch is shut down and not calling for heat. Diverter tees have directional markings which must be heeded; a tee installed backwards will function very poorly.

Fasteners commonly used with piping are a stud bolt with nuts ; a machine bolt and nut; or a powder-actuated tool fastener . This fitting (also known as a “bungalow fitting” or a “cottage fitting”) is a sanitary tee that allows two trap arms to be connected at the same level. Clean-outs are fittings with removable elements, allowing access to drains without the removal of plumbing fixtures.

A galvanized coating of metallic zinc was often used to protect steel water pipes from corrosion, but this protective coating eventually would dissolve away, exposing the iron to deterioration. Pipes used to convey fuel gas are often made of “black iron”, which has been chemically treated to reduce corrosion, but this treatment does not resist erosion from flowing water. Hydraulic systems use high fluid pressure, such as the hydraulic actuators for bulldozers and backhoes. Their hydraulic fittings are designed and rated for much greater pressure than that experienced in general piping systems, and they are generally not compatible with those used in plumbing.

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